What You Need to Know About the Future with Legendary Futurist Ray Kurzweil | Impact Theory | Transcription
Transcription for the video titled "What You Need to Know About the Future with Legendary Futurist Ray Kurzweil | Impact Theory".
Note: This transcription is split and grouped by topics and subtopics. You can navigate through the Table of Contents on the left. It's interactive. All paragraphs are timed to the original video. Click on the time (e.g., 01:53) to jump to the specific portion of the video.
- Everybody, welcome to Impact Theory. Our goal with this show and company is to introduce you to the people and ideas that will help you actually execute on your dreams. All right, today's episode is filmed a little bit differently than normal. It was filmed at the amazing Abundance 360 Conference, which is thrown by Peter D. Amandis, and it brings together some of the world's four most thinkers in technology. And we took advantage of that opportunity and filmed today's guest there. And he is one of the world's leading inventors. Forbes magazine called him the ultimate thinking machine, and Eke magazine referred to him as the rightful heir to Thomas Edison, not at all surprising, given the laundry list of ubiquitous technologies he's invented. Here are but a few. He's the principal inventor of the first CCD, the first flatbed scanner, the first text-to-speech synthesizer, the first music synthesizer, capable of recreating the grand piano and other orchestral instruments, and the first commercially marketed large vocabulary speech recognition device. His inventions have laid the foundation for several of the industries that we literally just take for granted today. For instance, his work in the music industry has been so fundamental to the evolution of that industry that he's received a Grammy award for outstanding achievements in music and technology. He holds 21 honorary doctorates and honors from three US presidents. He's also the recipient of the National Medal of Technology, and he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame as a matter of course. All of that, coupled with the fact that he has a 30-year track record of accurate predictions about the future and what technology will look like, it is no surprise that Google hired him as a director of engineering. He's written five best-selling books, including The Singularity is Near and How to Create a Mind, and he's the co-founder and chancellor of Singularity University, which he helped create to help sharpen the next generation of great minds. So please, help me in welcoming the man who PBS named as one of the 16 revolutionaries who made America, the legendary futurist, Ray Kurzweil. - Ray, thank you so much for joining us.
Career And Entrepreneurship
What is it that's allowed you to be as successful as you are (02:14)
And I wanted to jump right in. The kind of success that you've had is really unparalleled from the accuracy of your predictions, but I think even more enthralling from the fact that you've been an entrepreneur since you were in your teens, what is it that's allowed you to be as successful as you are? - Well, it's a question. I don't actually get that often. Think about it. Like a lot of entrepreneurs or creative people who pursue endeavors in all kinds of fields, the idea kind of takes over and has an imperative of its own and I just have to pursue it. So it's not like I choose the project. The project kind of recruits me and then become devoted to it. Whether it's writing a book or planning a speech or an invention or a company, it just becomes an imperative. So there's kind of a devotion to it. Part of my philosophy is failure is just success deferred. And I think actually if you knew of all the obstacles you'd meet, you'd never start a project. So it's actually good not to think too much about what you're doing, but make sure you have a passion for it. That it's something that would be beneficial to the world. One practice I use is I imagine I'm giving a speech, say four or five years from now, and I'm describing how I succeeded in this project. So what would I have to be saying? Well, if a project would say it's a reading machine for the blind, it's gonna have to actually access printed materials, so how would it do that? And I'm describing all these things and I work backwards from this speech. And that kind of gives me my road forward. - You've talked about as AI goes, at some point we're gonna be asking whether it has consciousness and then how do you really test?
How do fill in Ray's optimism and motivational gap (04:10)
And there's no really empirical test. You said one thing that kind of comes close to the way that you think is that it would have to have a model of the way that it thinks. Do you have a model of your own way? Are there building block beliefs like optimism or things like that? - I think optimism is a critical factor for success. And it's not a nidal prediction about the future. It's a self-fulfilling prophecy. If you're really convinced that you're going to succeed, then that is your model. And obstacles come along and okay, it's just that something in the road, get out of your car, get the thing out of the road and move on and figure out how you can succeed despite obstacles 'cause nothing worthwhile is going to present itself without challenges. - Do you have any fundamental beliefs? So I'll give you an example. So I believe that the reason that I can figure something out is humans are literally wired to adapt. That, I mean, you think about a horse, it's born, it can run, it can jump, it can take care of itself and so nature has made a decision with that species to pre-program whereas humans are ultimately flexible, essentially the ultimate adaptation machine. So if I know that I'm wired to do that, then I should be able to overcome an obstacle simply because that's the wiring of a human. - And any animal with a neocortex, which is all mammals, can adapt, but their conceptual level, their ability to operate at an abstract level differs depending on really the size of the neocortex. So primates which have more neocortex really optimized the neocortex within the brain without our big foreheads are pretty adaptable and can solve problems at a certain level. When we got that additional neocortex, we were already doing a very good job of being primates. So we created higher levels of abstractness and language and music and so solving a problem was to create a beautiful piece of music that's just a level of abstraction that mammals without a frontal cortex can't do. It's not that we're more adaptable, it's just that we are operating at a higher conceptual level. - But do you have things that are beliefs or otherwise that you use to give structure to your approach to a problem?
Lucid Dreaming (06:25)
- I mean, I have certain methodologies. Ultimately, it's a belief in my end goal and I think about that carefully that the end goal is worth doing. It is feasible. I have some rough model of how to get there really through this inverse process of imagining that I'm explaining how I solved it and what would I have to be saying? And then a belief that I can overcome obstacles. And one method I use is actually a sleep method. When I go to sleep at night, I assign myself a problem and it can be a broad diversity of types of problems. It could be how to solve a certain technical issue or a math problem or a relationship problem or a business strategy issue. Should I do this deal? Should I hire this person? How am I gonna articulate this idea in a book I'm writing? And I try not to solve it but I try to imagine what form would a solution take? What are the options? What do I know about it? And Freud said that in your dreams, your sensors at C-E-N-S-O-R-S are relaxed. So that's why you'll dream about things that are culturally taboo but they're also professional taboos. Like you can't solve a signal processing problem with these formulas and linguistics doesn't use these rules. So those kinds of inhibitions are relaxed in your dreams and you'll think of things that you wouldn't otherwise allow yourself to think about during your waking time. Something else that doesn't work in your dreams is your rational faculties. So when the elephant walks through the wall, the most remarkable thing about it is that you don't think it's remarkable. So you really can't evaluate ideas rationally. So the next, and if I wake up, I'll find myself dreaming very obliquely and strangely about this problem. The next step is in the morning, I try to get into a lucid dream state which is really halfway between dreaming and being awake. So I'm still in the dream, I have access to the dream ideas, I have the dream emotion, but I'm also aware, for example, that I'm in a bed. So now I have really both the creative dream ideas and my rational faculties. And I'll run through the dream and try to interpret it and try to make sense out of it. And invariably, it doesn't always work but it works more times than not. I'll have some new insight. It may be a whole new idea about this issue. I've gotten up with that and written a patent application for an invention that's come out this way. So during the day, I'm just kind of carrying out my dream decisions.
Lucid Dreaming to Solve Business Problems (09:08)
- That's really interesting. Now, did lucid dreaming come easily to you? Or is that something you had to practice? - Something to practice. I described this in my book, "Transcend." There's a chapter on sleep and in there I described this method. - Yeah, it's really interesting. I've actually never heard somebody talk about using lucid dreaming to solve business problems. I do something sort of similar with meditation where I'll decide on a problem before I start meditating and then click in. - I think that's a purpose of dreams is in fact to solve problems, to make sense of the experiences we've had, to re-calibrate our patterns in our neocortex to accommodate new information. But you can utilize that creative process consciously and dreams obviously allow you to think about things you otherwise wouldn't cut it later. - It's interesting though, so I've tried lucid dreaming not well. And what I find is as soon as I engage in the dream with any sort of awareness that it is a dream, it wakes me up. - Well, lucid dreaming is not, while you're sleeping, it's in the morning. When you are now kind of waking up and you're halfway between the dream and being awake. So you're kind of aware that you're in a bed, but you also still have access to the dream. So you don't do the lucid dreaming throughout the night. You just let yourself dream and it'll be influenced by what you seeded your subconscious with by signing yourself this problem.
RayStarted His First Company 50 Years Ago (10:40)
- I wanna go back for a second. So if my math is right, you launched your first company in the '60s, is that true? - Well, my first company was matching Haskell students to colleges by computer. I was in, started in 1867. I was a sophomore at MIT. I then we ran some tens of thousands of students through it and sold it to a hardcore brassy Ivanovich, a big publishing company in New York. And used those proceeds to put myself through college and helped support my parents. My father was already ill with heart disease. Major company was 1973, basically created a reading machine for the blind. And that needed three different technologies. How many found optical character recognition? Flatbed scanning and Texas speech synthesis and we put those three together into a reading machine. That company today is Nuance, which is a leader in language technologies. - So that's even more amazing now when I think about it. So the reason I brought that up is I wanted to know in a modern context, like starting a company, okay, yeah, it's cool, especially for it to succeed. And I mean, to have lasted roughly 50 years as insanity. What was the entrepreneurial scene like back then? Did people even use the word entrepreneur? Was their seed capital? - The word entrepreneurship or entrepreneur was not used. And it was not a thing. It was not celebrated like it is today. People always talk about the trends from this year to the next. But if you look at the broad trend over the decades, it's just grown exponentially. The total amount of venture capital for high tech in the United States in 1974, when I started this reading machine business, was $10 million. That's a small deal today. So it just wasn't on the radar. And I basically funded it through angel capital. But then when we got established and had a product, we did get an investment from Fidelity and Xerox. And Xerox in 1979 bought the company, basically to provide a bridge back from the world of information on paper to an intelligent computer form. That became the scanners for Xerox.
Startups Advice (12:52)
So knowing that you've built something that's gone on to be just incredibly successful, what advice do you have for entrepreneurs that are starting today when, like you said, $10 million is a small deal, the access to the internet. I mean, there's so much of the barrier to entry is just gone. - Right, well, there's a real emphasis on having the right idea and also the right team. Companies that succeed really have the right people behind it. I mean, if you look at Google, Live page and Sergio Brin had a great idea of reversing the links on the internet to provide a search engine. But they also put a very high priority on the quality of people they've brought in. And that continues to be the case. And then the team dynamics are very important. You very often have a great idea and a great team, but something happens to the team. There's a schism and they're kind of at war with each other or there's a problem personality. And those kinds of issues kill more companies than anything else. But the opportunities now to fund it in many creative ways, like initial coin offerings and a substantial organization of the angel capital and just the amount of money in all different forms is breathtaking. So if you have a good idea, learn to articulate it, you have to have a passion for it. People start a company and say, "Well, I really want to start a company and the idea is secondary." That's really not the right approach. You have to have a passion for what you're doing.
How to Evaluate an Idea (14:28)
And other than passion, how should people evaluate their ideas? I think the other people, mentors are very important. So find people who've done maybe not your idea exactly, but have followed creative ideas to successful conclusion and get their input. And just like writing a book, you write it and then you rewrite it based on feedback from other people. It's the same thing with an entrepreneurial idea. Write a business plan, get feedback on it. You can go through a lot of iterations, may turn out very different when you're actually going out to the marketplace. And what do you think about people that are paranoid to share their idea?
Startup Mismatch (14:59)
They think that they've got something and they don't want to talk to people about it. Generally speaking, that's a mistake. They do know some companies that are operating in stealth fashion for that reason. Sometimes it's justified, but generally, it's going to be the quality of your execution and your passion and your commitment that's important. You have to break some exit to make an omelet and you want to recruit people and financing and mentors and all kinds of resources to succeed, you're going to have to share your idea generally far and wide. It's not a bad idea to share it publicly and get some excitement going about the idea. Most companies have succeeded have operated that way. The thing that really first drew me to you was, you were one of the first people I heard talking about potentially living forever and what that might look like and obviously the singularity in the notion that maybe our consciousness could outlive our bodies, but even when I first started researching you, you were really optimizing your health and trying to make sure that just, hey, that the physical body lasted as long as it possibly could. One, what is the longevity, escape velocity exactly? Where is that on a timeline for the average person?
The 3 bridges to Live Forever (16:21)
- So my co-author, Terry Grossman, who is my co-author for Fantastic Voyage in Transcend, talk about three bridges to radical life extension and I would add a fourth. Bridge one is where we are now, although it's actually beginning to blend into the second bridge, but the first bridge is kind of what you can do based on our knowledge and knowledge of yourself to get the bridge to. So I take a lot of supplements, some of them medications like metformin, which actually prevents cancer by killing cancer stem cells and is a caloric restriction, memetics, meaning it provides the same biochemical changes as eating less, but I take a lot of pills about 100 a day and people say, Ray, you really think taking these supplements and pills is gonna enable you to live hundreds of years? No, the goal is to get the bridge to. Bridge two has already started, it's gonna be quite mature in a decade that's biotechnology, basically having the means of understanding and reprogramming the outdated software of life. And that's not a metaphor, I mean, we literally have strings of data in our genome that control our lives and we're learning how it works and it's outdated, it was not any interest of the human species when that evolved for us to live much past 20. Even life expectancy was 19 a thousand years ago. So we're learning how to reprogram that, we have now applications at the edge of clinical practice. We can, for example, fix a broken heart from a heart attack, we can grow organs with your DNA and all that's coming soon, it's working already and she fixing a broken heart is working in humans. That'll be a flood over the next 10 years. And I think in 10 years we'll reach longevity escape velocity which is adding more time than is going by, not just the infant life expectancy but to your remaining life expectancy. So the sands of time will run in rather than run out. Now it's not a guarantee life expectancy is a calculated number is to how long you would live if there were no further scientific progress which of course is not the case but you could have a computed life expectancy of 30 years, 50 years, it could still be run over by the proverbial bus tomorrow. We're working on that too with self-driving cars but we'll get there I think for at least the diligent public in about a decade. I think, you know, I'm personally there, I think I'm not running out of time with the advances going as quickly as they already are. I'm adding at least as much time as going by. And again, life expectancy is a calculation that contemplates no further scientific progress but that's not the case. So if you take into consideration expected progress, I already expect to live indefinitely 'cause I'm gonna get to a point where we will have information and knowledge to get to the next point. So it's a bridge to a bridge to a bridge. So third bridges, medical nano robots that can basically go and do microsurgery and fix every kind of disease. The fourth bridge is being able to actually back ourselves up. Your phone already has sort of infinite life because if you throw it out the window and it smashes on the ground, three stories down, you can recreate it 'cause it's all in the cloud and you recreate its knowledge, its skills, its personality. We can't do that yet. People will think with our brains, people will think it pretty remarkable. People actually went through the day in 2018 without backing up their mind file. We'll ultimately be able to do that and the reason we'll be able to do that is part of our thinking will be non-biological. That part is gonna grow exponentially so it will ultimately predominate. It will become so smart that it can only back itself up but it will completely understand the biological part and be able to back that up too. So we'll be able to back ourselves up. - Going back to what you were saying about being able to fix a broken heart, one of the things I find utterly fascinating about your story and I think is illuminates what I love about your mindset is I know that you had a heart condition and had it addressed and you were being interviewed about it and you said, so matter of factly, I'm really glad that it was something so simple because I didn't wanna have to invent a way to fix something more complicated. And I love that it wasn't like, oh, I would have died from that thing. It was just I would have had to invent a way. What makes you think like that? - This comes from my family. The power of human ideas to solve problems.
Personification is here to serve us (21:02)
I remember when I was, think about eight, my grandfather went back to Europe, his first return visit after fleeing Hitler in 1938 and he was given the opportunity to handle with his own hands original documents by Leonardo da Vinci and he described it in reverential terms, these were sacred documents but they were not written by God. They were written by a guy who had brilliant ideas that actually were not feasible in his lifetime but it went on to transform the world. And this was personalized. You, Ray, can find ideas that can solve problems either that you encounter or that the world encounters and you have a responsibility to do that. It was personalized. My mother's mother's mother started the first school in Europe that provided higher education for girls, went through 14th grade. If you were lucky enough to get an education at all in mid 19th century Europe as a girl, it went through ninth grade. It was controversial. She went around Europe lecturing on the importance of educating girls and how to do it. The school was very influential. On the education of women, her daughter, my grandmother became an exemplar, became the first woman in Europe to get a PhD in chemistry, took over the school, between the two women, they ran for 70 years and then pled Hitler. So I got this philosophy of the power of human ideas and the importance of education and developing your ideas for my family. It has worked so far. I mean, so far if I've encountered problems, it could be business problems, relational problems, problems with an invention. I've found a solution. So I just have this confidence. It's not guaranteed but so far so good. So I would say so far so very good.
Critical skill for the tech age (22:50)
If you had to cobble together a few traits that you think make people successful as sort of a general rule, maybe the things you've tried to pass on to your kids, like what are those few just like absolutely critical traits? Well, try to find goals and objectives that are meaningful to yourself and to the world. In my father's case, he had a brilliance for music so it was creating music. My mother was a very talented artist. In my case, it was having ideas about technology but also writing but have some passion for what you want to accomplish at any point in time. And then optimism, not a trivial optimism but a confidence that you can overcome the challenges that will invariably occur. Getting along with people because you can't do these things by yourself and so you have to be a good salesperson in the best meaning of that term. And you can sell something if you really believe in it yourself and have a passion for it. So my first major company was building a reading machine for the blind so it was possible to get other people to be passionate about that goal and it was meaningful. And a belief in the power of ideas and that you can find ideas that will solve any problem that comes along. - These are very powerful traits.
The world is getting better by every measure (24:17)
You've been referred to as the rightful heir to Thomas Edison, I think that's incredibly fair. I also think, I don't know if anybody's ever called you this or not but they should, you're like the real accurate Nostradamus, something like 86% of your predictions have been accurate which is crazy. So would you say that given you have that kind of track record is the world getting better or worse? - Well, there's no question it's getting better. I mean you track any measure of human wellbeing, literacy, almost everybody was illiterate a century ago, certainly two centuries ago, almost everybody's literate today. And I have these charts that just show the trend on all these different measures, poverty in Asia's gone down 95% over the last 25 years and measure after measure of education, health, wealth, renewable energy, all these things are moving in the right direction. We have an evolutionary tendency to emphasize bad news that was actually important for survival. You're walking through the jungle millennia ago, you really needed to pay attention to potential bad news like a rustling in the leaves, it might be a predator. That was really important, the fact that your crops were one percent better than last year, that wasn't quite as critical to be aware of. And we have a natural empathy so we hear about something horrible that happened halfway around the world to a small group of people, our hearts go out to them. People have the wrong algorithm for assessing whether the world is getting better or worse. It's how often do they hear good news versus bad news? And that's not the right measure. The world is getting better by every measure but it happens day by day and so it's not very exciting news that compared to last week literacy fell by you know, point three percent and so we tend not to focus on that. Our information about what's wrong with the world, including violence, is getting exponentially better. So I say this is the most peaceful time in human history and people look at me like I'm nuts. Didn't you pay attention to the news and you hear about that event yesterday and last week? That's because we're hearing about events and that's a good thing, it's painful to hear about bad news but it actually focuses us to solve them. So looking at some of the predictions that you've made which for me as a hardcore techno optimist, they're very exciting and the whole notion of the singularity and for people that don't know the singularity, it's basically, you describe it in fact, I mean it's I would be stealing your words.
Concepts Of Singularity And Alien Intelligence
THE SINGULARITY (26:39)
So what is the singularity and why shouldn't people be tense? - Well singularity is a complex endpoint. One of my theses is the exponential growth of information technology and I have all these graphs of different forms of information technology like the price performance of computing and they're very perfect exponentials. It's a straight line or even another exponential on a logarithmic graph and this has been going on since the late 19th century and I have our whole mathematical explanation about why that happens. We already passed the point where we have enough hardware to emulate the human brain. The little boards that actually have over 100 times the computation needed to functionally emulate the human brain already. The software is a more challenging issue but I make the case that we're moving exponentially on that also and we're getting some of our insights by exponentially more information about the human brain. So I make the case that we will achieve human levels of performance in every area that humans can now perform by 2029. And once a computer achieves human levels of performance in an area, it very quickly sores past in. I mean we saw that computers could play an average game of Go early last year and then within months, sword past the best human and then within days of that, a computer sword past that, AlphaGo Zero and then I described how we're gonna merge with this technology in the 2030s, medical nanoruts will connect our neocortex to the cloud. Basically it's a synthetic neocortex and make ourselves smarter. It'll be like what we did two million years ago when we got these big foreheads. That was additional neocortex. We put it at the top of the hierarchy, the neocortex is a hierarchical structure and that additional neocortex, which we got with these big foreheads, that was the enabling factor for us to invent language and art and music and science and technology. We're gonna do it again by connecting our neocortex to the cloud, only that time it won't be a one shot deal. We couldn't keep expanding our skulls or birth would have become impossible. But when we connected wirelessly to the cloud, the cloud's very information technology, it's not limited by a fixed enclosure, it's gonna keep growing exponentially. You do the math and these trajectories are quite predictable and have been, I mean I've been making forward looking predictions since the early '80s and it's continued to pan out. We will multiply our intelligence a billion fold by 2045. That's such a profound transformation, such a singular transformation, that we borrowed this metaphor from physics and call it the singularity. Because we can no longer predict what that would look like. Right, although you can't see what's going on easily in a singularity in physics because the event horizon around it keeps all the information in because gravity is so great. However, we can use our intellect to actually describe what it would be like to fall into a physics black hole.
RESPONSE TO ISNT EVERYONE IS THE SAME (30:06)
And similarly, we can use our intellect to talk about what life would be like past this historical singularity. - What do you say to, 'cause when I do that like intuitively, I have to admit, I fall into the first trap of well won't we all then just be the same. Like intelligence will become such this race, it's like the machine playing go against itself, right? - It will become more different. Right now we're very much the same. We all actually have a very similar architecture of about 300 million neocortical modules, organized a hierarchy, and some of us have organized them better than others for particular tasks. So somebody might be a master playing chess and someone else like my father was a master at creating music. We actually don't have enough capacity to do more than one thing at a master level. We'll be able to pursue things very deeply as we expand the capacity of our neocortex, and it'll give us the opportunity to actually be more different and not more the same. - So one thing that Brian Johnson said that I'd never heard before that I thought was really interesting is this concept that humans operate from a position of familiar. And AI, what makes AI so interesting is it can operate from a completely surprising angle, and you talked about it as beginning to feel like alien intelligence.
ALIEN INTELLIGENCE (31:17)
What is it about AI that excites you and does it have to do with that ability to think so radically differently? - Well, intelligence inherently thinks in a radical way and comes up with surprising new approaches. And it's only a surprising different approach that's gonna solve a problem that Heterfora was intractable because Hessebus had a deep mind. The Google subsidiary uses term alien intelligence to describe Alpha Zero, how it played chess and go in sort of shocking ways of maybe sacrificing a queen and a bishop, which was unheard of, but it turned out to be a brilliant move or making a move and go, placing a piece in a corner of the board, which really made no sense from a conventional rule of thumb approach, but turned out to be a brilliant move. But that's true of intelligence in general, is shocking and surprising, but ultimately is capable of solving previously unsolved problems. - All right, before I ask my last question, where can these guys find you online? - I have a website, curzwhileai.net.
AGS FINAL MESSAGE TO THE WORLD (32:45)
We have about 10 million readers. There's a free daily newsletter, which is very influential, which you can sign up for on the homepage. So curzwhileai.net. - Perfect. And then my final question is, what is the impact that you want to have on the world? - My massively transformative purpose, which goes back more than 50 years, like 62 when I was 14, and I met with Marvin Minsky, who became my mentor for 55 years, and Frank Rosenblatt, really started the connectionist school, is to develop artificial intelligence to amplify our own intelligence and to enable us to solve problems that we couldn't otherwise solve. It's only intelligence that enables us to make progress. If it weren't for our innate intelligence, we'd still be writing on cave walls. In fact, we wouldn't be doing that. And we've made tremendous progress. I mean, if you read what life was like, even 200 years ago, read Thomas Hobbes, describes life as short, brutish, disaster-prone, poverty-filled, disease-filled. It's extremely harsh, let alone 1,000 years ago, people tend to romanticize the past. But we've made life a measureably better because of applying our intelligence to solving one problem after another. And if we had more intelligence, we could do more of that. And that's been my passion. Well, at least for the last 50 years. - Awesome, thank you so much for having me. I really appreciate it. All right, guys, this is somebody who's been making predictions for a very long time, been doing incredible things for a long time. So when you dive into his world, there's gonna be an immeasurable amount of stuff to see there. And the one thing that I hope came across in this interview and that you will see without question as you research more into him, is there is a beautiful optimism to what he's trying to pull off. Like he said, it can't be some sort of overly simplistic try, like everything is gonna be okay. It's really about being driven to figure out and solve the problems of yourselves. My favorite story about him is that when faced with a heart condition, he looked at it and said, "Well, if it had been something more complicated, "it would have just had to invent a solution for that." And when you approach the world like that and have the optimism, the fortitude, and the persistence to pursue the things that you're passionate about in order to turn them into something that is actually usable, you get what I think is the ultimate way forward. And when people look at him and try to classify Ray, it really is as the man who is ushering in the future. And I don't think that we could be in any more capable hands. Guys, if you haven't already, be sure to subscribe. And until next time, my friends, be legendary. Take care. - Thank you so much. - Hey everybody, thank you so much for watching and being a part of this community. If you haven't already, be sure to subscribe. You're gonna get weekly videos on building a growth mindset, cultivating grit, and unlocking your full potential.